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ادْعُ إِلِى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ
OdAAu ila sabeeli rabbika bialhikmati waalmawAAithati alhasanati wajadilhum biallatee hiya ahsanu inna rabbaka huwa aAAlamu biman dalla AAan sabeelihi wahuwa aAAlamu bialmuhtadeena
Ka yi kira zuwa ga hanyar Ubangijinka da hikima(6) da wa´azi mai kyau kuma ka yi jãyayya da su da magana wadda take mafi kyau. Lalle ne Ubangijinka Shĩ neMafi sani ga wanda ya ɓace daga hanyarSa, kuma Shi ne Mafi sani ga mãsu shiryuwa.
Asbabu n-Nuzuul (Occasions of Revelation)
(Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortationﾅ) [16:125-127]. Abu Mansur Muhammad
ibn Muhammad al-Mansuri informed us> Ali ibn Umar al-Hafiz> Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-
Aziz> al-Hakam ibn Musa> Ismail ibn Ayyash> Abd al-Malik ibn Abi Ghaniyyah> al-Hakam ibn Utaybah> Mujahid> Ibn Abbas who said: ﾓWhen the idolaters retreated from those who were killed at the Battle of Uhud, The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, went there and saw a scene which he strongly disliked.
And he also saw Hamzah with his stomach ripped open, nose burnt and ears cut off. He said: If it were not for the fear of causing more grief to the women or that it becomes a followed practice after me, I would leave him until Allah, exalted is He, resurrect him from the bellies of predatory animals and birds.
I shall kill seventy men of them [of the disbelievers of Quraysh] in revenge, He then asked for a mantle to cover him with it. When he covered his face, his feet remained uncovered and so he covered them with some Bulrush. He then placed him forward and said Allah is the greatest ten times. Then, all those Muslim dead were brought, one by one, while the body of Hamzah was unmoved from its place, and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, prayed on them.
And so He performed seventy prayers on Hamzah. There were seventy Muslims who died in this battle. When they were buried and finished with, Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation) up to His words (Endure thou patiently (O Muhammad). Thine endurance is only by (the help of) Allahﾅ) [16:127].
And so, he was patient and did not mutilate any oneﾔ. Ismail ibn Ibrahim al-Waiz informed us> Abul-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa al-Hafiz> Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Aziz> Bishr ibn al-Walid al-Kindi> Salih al-Murri> Sulayman al-Taymi> Abu Uthman al-Nahdi> Abu Hurayrah who said: ﾓWhen the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, got closer to Hamzah, he saw that he was dead. Nothing that he ever saw was more painful to his heart than that sight. He said: ﾓBy Allah, I will kill seventy of them in return!ﾔ This verse was then revealed (If ye punish, then punish with the like of that wherewith ye were afflicted.
But if ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient) [16:126]. Abu Hassan al-Muzakki informed us> Abul-Abbas Muhammad ibn Ishaq> Musa ibn Ishaq> Yahya ibn Abd al-Hamid al-Humani> Qays ibn Abi Layla> al-Hakam> Muqassim> Ibn Abbas who reported that, on the day Hamzah was killed and mutilated, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ﾓIf I get my hand on the Quraysh I will mutilate seventy men of them. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (If ye punish, then punish with the like of that wherewith ye were afflicted.
But if ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient), upon which the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: I would rather be patient, O Lord! ﾔ The commentators of the Quran said: ﾓWhen the Muslims saw what the idolaters did to their dead at the Battle of Uhud in terms of ripping open their stomachs, cutting off their male organs and mutilating them in the most ugly way, they said: If Allah gives us a chance to get our hands on them, we will mutilate them even worse than what they did; we shall maim them in a way that none of the Arabs did before to any other Arab; and we shall do this and we shall do that.
The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, stopped at the body of his paternal uncle Hamzah with his nose and ears amputated, his male organs cut off and his stomach ripped open. Hind bint Utbah had taken a piece of his liver, chewed it and swallowed it but her stomach could not take it and she threw it up. When the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, heard of this, he said: She would have never entered hell if she did digest it; Hamzah is too noble in the sight of Allah to allow any part of his body to enter hell. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, saw Hamzah [lying dead and mutilated], he had never seen, before that, anything which was more painful to his heart.
And so he said: May Allahs mercy be on you; you were, as far as I know, someone who kept his ties of kinship and did always good deeds. Had it not been for the grieving of those who survived of your family, it would have pleased me to leave you as you are until you are resurrected [on the Day of Judgement] from different bellies. By Allah, if Allah, exalted is He, gives me the opportunity to lay my hand on them, I will mutilate seventy men of them, for what they did to you. But Allah, exalted is He, revealed (If ye punish, then punish with the like of that wherewith ye were afflicted.
But if ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient) and so the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: I would rather be patient, and then he made amends for the oath he had madeﾔ. Here, we need to mention how Hamzah was killed. Amr ibn Abi Amr al-Muzakki informed us> Muhammad ibn Makki> Muhammad ibn Yusuf> Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Jufi> Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Abd Allah> Hujayn ibn al-Muthanna> Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Abi Salamah. And we were informed by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya> his father> Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Thaqafi> Said ibn Yahya al-Umawi> his father> Muhammad ibn Ishaq> Abd Allah ibn al-Fadl ibn Ayyash ibn Abi Rabiah> Sulayman ibn Yasar> Jafar ibn Amr ibn Umayyah al-Damri who said: ﾓI travelled with Ubayd Allah ibn Adiyy ibn al-Khiyar through Hums. While we were there Ubayd Allah said to me: Do you wish to go to visit Wahshiyy to ask him how he killed Hamzah.
I said: If you want to. A man said to us: You will find him in the courtyard of his house; he is a man who is always drunk. However, if he is sober, he will speak in Arabic and you might find what you are after. When we got to him, we greeted him and he raised his head. We said: We have come to you to tell us about your killing of Hamzah, may Allah have mercy on him. He said: I will relate to you exactly what I related to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, when he asked me about the same. I was a slave of Jubayr ibn Mutim ibn Adiyy ibn Nawfal whose uncle Tuaymah ibn Adiyy was killed at the Battle of Badr. When the Quraysh marched toward Uhud, Jubayr ibn Mutim said to me: You are free if you kill Hamzah, Muhammads uncle, as a revenge for the killing of my uncle Tuaymah.
I went out with them. It is to be remembered that I am an Abyssinian who is expert in throwing spears, like all Abyssinians, and I never missed my target. When the two sides met, I went looking for Hamzah until I saw him in the middle of the army, like a white-and-black camel, slaughtering people with his sword such that nothing stood in his way. By Allah, I was waiting for my moment, hiding behind a rock or
tree, so that he drew closer to me, when Siba ibn Abd al-Uzza passed me and went toward him.
When Hamzah, may Allah have mercy on him, saw him, he called him: Here, O son of a cutter of clitoris! Then he struck him on the head and, by Allah, he did not miss. I moved my spear about until I felt comfortable and threw it at him. It caught him in the lower abdomen and the spear came out from his feet. He made a move toward me and then collapsed and I left him to die. I went toward him, retrieved my spear and joined the people at the camp. I did not want to kill anyone else, for I only killed him to gain my freedom. When I went back to Mecca, I was emancipated.
I stayed there until Islam spread throughout it upon which I travelled to al-Taif. In Taif, they sent emissaries to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and mentioned that he does not harm emissaries. And so I went with them to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. When he saw me, he said: Are you Wahshiyy? and when I answered in the affirmative, he asked again: You are the one who killed Hamzah? I said: What happened is exactly as it was related to you. He said: Could you keep your face away from me? I left. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, died and Musaylimah the liar emerged to the people, I thought to go and kill Musaylimah to cancel out my killing of Hamzah. I went out with people, and what happened to him is now known ﾔ.
The Command to invite people to Allah with Wisdom and Good Preaching
ادْعُ إِلِى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ ...
Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom,
Allah commands His Messenger Muhammad to invite the people to Allah with Hikmah (wisdom).
Ibn Jarir said:
"That is what was revealed to him from the Book and the Sunnah.''
... وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ...
and fair preaching,
meaning, with exhortation and stories of the events that happened to people that are mentioned in the Qur'an, which he is to tell them about in order to warn them of the punishment of Allah.
... وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ...
and argue with them with that which is best.
meaning, if any of them want to debate and argue, then let that be in the best manner, with kindness, gentleness and good speech, as Allah says elsewhere:
وَلاَ تُجَـدِلُواْ أَهْلَ الْكِتَـبِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ
And do not argue with the People of the Book, unless it be with that which is best, except for those who purposefully do wrong. (29:46)
Allah commanded him to speak gently, as He commanded Musa and Harun to do when he sent them to Pharaoh, as He said:
فَقُولاَ لَهُ قَوْلاً لَّيِّناً لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَى
And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah). (20: 44)
... إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ...
Truly, your Lord best knows who has strayed from His path,
meaning, Allah already knows who is doomed (destined for Hell) and who is blessed (destined for Paradise).
... وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ ﴿١٢٥﴾
and He best knows those who are guided.
This has already been written with Him and the matter is finished, so call them to Allah, but do not exhaust yourself with regret over those who go astray, for it is not your task to guide them. You are just a warner, and all you have to do is convey the Message, and it is He Who will bring them to account.
إِنَّكَ لاَ تَهْدِى مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ
You cannot guide whom you love. (28:56)
لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ
It is not up to you to guide them, but Allah guides whom He wills. (2:72)
يقول تعالى آمرا رسوله محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يدعو الخلق إلى الله بالحكمة . قال ابن جرير وهو ما أنزله عليه من الكتاب والسنة والموعظة الحسنة أي بما فيه من الزواجر والوقائع بالناس ذكرهم بها ليحذروا بأس الله تعالى وقوله " وجادلهم بالتي هي أحسن " أي من احتاج منهم إلى مناظرة وجدال فليكن بالوجه الحسن برفق ولين وحسن خطاب كقوله تعالى " ولا تجادلوا أهل الكتاب إلا بالتي هي أحسن إلا الذين ظلموا منهم " الآية فأمره تعالى بلين الجانب كما أمر به موسى وهارون عليهما السلام حين بعثهما إلى فرعون في قوله " فقولا له قولا لينا لعله يتذكر أو يخشى " وقوله " إن ربك هو أعلم بمن ضل عن سبيله " الآية . أي قدم علم الشقي منهم والسعيد وكتب ذلك عنده وفرغ منه فادعهم إلى الله ولا تذهب نفسك على من ضل منهم حسرات فإنه ليس عليك هداهم إنما أنت نذير عليك البلاغ وعلينا الحساب " إنك لا تهدي من أحببت " " ليس عليك هداهم ولكن الله يهدي من يشاء " .
"ادع" الناس يا محمد "إلى سبيل ربك" دينه "بالحكمة" بالقرآن "والموعظة الحسنة" مواعظه أو القول الرقيق "وجادلهم بالتي" أي بالمجادلة التي "هي أحسن" كالدعاء إلى الله بآياته والدعاء إلى حججه "إن ربك هو أعلم" أي عالم "بمن ضل عن سبيله وهو أعلم بالمهتدين" فيجازيهم وهذا قبل الأمر بالقتال ونزل لما قتل حمزة ومثل به فقال صلى الله عليه وسلم وقد رآه : لأمثلن بسبعين منهم مكانك:
هذه الآية نزلت بمكة في وقت الأمر بمهادنة قريش , وأمره أن يدعو إلى دين الله وشرعه بتلطف ولين دون مخاشنة وتعنيف , وهكذا ينبغي أن يوعظ المسلمون إلى يوم القيامة 0 فهي محكمة في جهة العصاة من الموحدين , ومنسوخة بالقتال في حق الكافرين . وقد قيل : إن من أمكنت معه هذه الأحوال من الكفار ورجي إيمانه بها دون قتال فهي فيه محكمة . والله أعلم .
I'raab - grammatical analysis of the Qur'an
«ادْعُ» أمر فاعله مستتر والجملة مستأنفة.
«إِلى سَبِيلِ» متعلقان بادع.
«رَبِّكَ» مضاف إليه والكاف مضاف إليه.
«بِالْحِكْمَةِ» متعلقان بادع.
«وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ» معطوف على الحكمة.
«وَجادِلْهُمْ» الواو عاطفة وأمر فاعله مستتر والهاء مفعول به والجملة معطوفة.
«بِالَّتِي» اسم موصول في محل جر بالباء ومتعلقان بجادلهم.
«هِيَ أَحْسَنُ» مبتدأ وخبر والجملة صلة.
«إِنَّ رَبَّكَ» إن واسمها والكاف مضاف إليه.
«هُوَ أَعْلَمُ» مبتدأ وخبر والجملة خبر إن.
«بِمَنْ» اسم موصول في محل جر ومتعلقان بأعلم.
«ضَلَّ» ماض فاعله مستتر والجملة صلة.
«عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ» متعلقان بضل.
«وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ» مبتدأ وخبر والجملة معطوفة.
«بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ» متعلقان بأعلم.