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2vs9

يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُم وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

YukhadiAAoona Allaha waallatheena amanoo wama yakhdaAAoona illa anfusahum wama yashAAuroona

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Yoruba Translation

Hausa Translation

Suna yaudarayya da Allah da waɗanda suka yi ĩmãni, alhãli bã su yaudarar kõwa fãce kansu, kuma bã su sakankancħwa!

English Translation

Fain would they deceive Allah and those who believe, but they only deceive themselves, and realise (it) not!
They desire to deceive Allah and those who believe, and they deceive only themselves and they do not perceive.
They think to beguile Allah and those who believe, and they beguile none save themselves; but they perceive not.

Asbabu n-Nuzuul (Occasions of Revelation)

Tafseer (English)

The Hypocrites

We mentioned that four Ayat in the beginning of Surah Al-Baqarah described the believers. The two last Ayat (2:6-7) describe the disbelievers.

Afterwards, Allah begins to describe the hypocrites who show belief and hide disbelief. Since the matter of the hypocrites is vague and many people do not realize their true reality, Allah mentioned their description in detail. Each of the characteristics that Allah used to described them with is a type of hypocrisy itself. Allah revealed Surah Bara'h and Surah Al-Munafiqun about the hypocrites. He also mentioned the hypocrites in Surah An-Nur and other Surahs, so that their description would be known and their ways and errors could be avoided.

Allah said,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿٨﴾

يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُم وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿٩﴾

And of mankind, there are some who say: "We believe in Allah and the Last Day'' while in fact they do not believe. They try to deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!

Meaning of Nifaq

Nifaq means to show conformity - or agreement - and to conceal evil. Nifaq has several types:

*

Nifaq in the creed that causes its people to reside in Hell for eternity, and
*

Nifaq in deed, which is one of the major sins, as we will explain soon, Allah willing.

Ibn Jurayj said of the hypocrite that,

"His actual deeds are different from what he publicizes, what he conceals is different from what he utters, his entrance and presence are not the same as his exit and absence.''

The Beginning of Hypocrisy

The revelations about the characteristics of the hypocrites were revealed in Al-Madinah, this is because there were no hypocrites in Makkah. Rather the opposite was the situation in Makkah, since some people were forced to pretend that they were disbelievers, while their hearts concealed their faith. Afterwards, the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, where the Ansar from the tribes of Aws and Khazraj resided. They used to worship idols during the pre-Islamic period of ignorance, just as the rest of the Arab idolators. Three Jewish tribes resided in Al-Madinah, Banu Qaynuqa-allies of Al-Khazraj, Banu An-Nadir and Banu Qurayzah-allies of the Aws. Many members of the Aws and Khazraj tribes embraced Islam. However, only a few Jews embraced Islam, such as Abdullah bin Salam.

During the early stage in Al-Madinah, there weren't any hypocrites because the Muslims were not strong enough to be feared yet. On the contrary, the Messenger of Allah conducted peace treaties with the Jews and several other Arab tribes around Al-Madinah. Soon after, the battle of Badr occurred and Allah gave victory to Islam and its people.

Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul was a leader in Al-Madinah. He was Al-Khazraj's chief, and during the period of Jahiliyyah he was the master of both tribes - Aws and Khazraj. They were about to appoint him their king when the Message reached Al-Madinah, and many in Al-Madinah embraced Islam.

Ibn Salul's heart was filled with hatred against Islam and its people. When the battle of Badr took place, he said, "Allah's religion has become apparent.'' So he pretended to be Muslim, along with many of those who were just like him, as well as many among the People of the Book.

It was then that hypocrisy began in Al-Madinah and among the surrounding nomad tribes. As for the Emigrants, none of them were hypocrites, since they emigrated willingly (seeking the pleasure of Allah). Rather, when a Muslim would emigrate from Makkah, he would be forced to abandon all of his wealth, offspring and land; he would do so seeking Allah's reward in the Hereafter.

The Tafsir of Ayah 2:8

Allah said,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

And of mankind, there are some who say: "We believe in Allah and the Last Day'' while in fact they do not believe.

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn Abbas said that,

"This refers to the hypocrites among the Aws and Khazraj and those who behaved as they did.''

This is how Abu Al-Aliyah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and As-Suddi explained this Ayah.

Allah revealed the characteristics of the hypocrites, so that the believers would not be deceived by their outer appearance, thus saving the believers from a great evil. Otherwise, the believers might think that the hypocrites were believers, when in reality they are disbelievers. To consider the sinners as righteous people is extremely dangerous, Allah said, وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ (And of mankind, there are some who say: "We believe in Allah and the Last Day'' while in fact they do not believe) meaning, they utter these false statements only with their tongues, just as Allah said,

إِذَا جَآءَكَ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ قَالُواْ نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ

When the hypocrites come to you (O Muhammad), they say: "We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.'' Allah knows that you are indeed His Messenger. (63:1)

This Ayah means that;

the hypocrites utter these statements only when they meet you, not because they actually believe what they are saying. The hypocrites emphasize their belief in Allah and the Last Day with their words, when that is not the case in reality. Therefore, Allah stated that the hypocrites lie in their testimony of creed, when He said, وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ (And Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are indeed liars), (63:1), and, وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ (while in fact they believe not).

Allah said, يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا (They try to deceive Allah and those who believe).

The hypocrites show belief outwardly while concealing disbelief. They think that by doing this, they will mislead Allah, or that the statements they utter will help them with Allah, and this is an indication of their total ignorance. They think that such behavior will deceive Allah, just as it might deceive some of the believers.

Similarly, Allah said,

يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهِ جَمِيعاً فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَىْءٍ أَلاَ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْكَـذِبُونَ

On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you. And they think that they have something (to stand upon). Verily, they are liars! (58:18)

Hence, Allah refuted their way by saying,

وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُم وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

While they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!

Allah stated that the hypocrites only deceive themselves by this behavior, although they are unaware of this fact.

Allah also said,

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ

Verily, the hypocrites try to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. (4:142)

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Jurayj commented on Allah's statement,

"The hypocrites pronounce, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah' seeking to ensure the sanctity of their blood and money, all the while concealing disbelief.''

Tafseer (Arabic)

وقوله تعالى " يخادعون الله والذين آمنوا " أي بإظهارهم ما أظهروه من الإيمان مع إسرارهم الكفر يعتقدون بجهلهم أنهم يخدعون الله بذلك وأن ذاك نافعهم عنده وأنه يروج عليه كما قد يروج على بعض المؤمنين كما قال تعالى" يوم يبعثهم الله جميعا فيحلفون له كما يحلفون لكم ويحسبون أنهم على شيء ألا إنهم هم الكاذبون ولهذا قابلهم على اعتقادهم ذلك بقوله " وما يخدعون إلا أنفسهم وما يشعرون " يقول وما يغرون بصنيعهم هذا ولا يخدعون إلا أنفسهم وما يشعرون بذلك من أنفسهم كما قال تعالى " إن المنافقين يخادعون الله وهو خادعهم " ومن القراء من قرأ" وما يخدعون إلا أنفسهم " وكلا القراءتين ترجع إلى معنى واحد . قال ابن جرير فإن قال قائل : كيف يكون المنافق لله وللمؤمنين مخادعا وهو لا يظهر بلسانه خلاف ما هو له معتقد إلا تقية ؟ قيل : لا تمتنع العرب أن تسمي من أعطى بلسانه غير الذي في ضميره تقية لينجو بما هو له خائف مخادعا فكذلك المنافق سمي مخادعا لله وللمؤمنين بإظهاره ما أظهر بلسانه تقية بما يخلص به من القتل والسبي والعذاب العاجل وهو لغير ما أظهره مستبطن وذلك من فعله وإن كان خداعا للمؤمنين في عاجل الدنيا فهو لنفسه بذلك من فعله خادع لأنه يظهر لها بفعله ذلك بها أنه يعطيها أمنيتها ويسقيها كأس سرورها وهو موردها حياض عطبها ومجرعها به كأس عذابها ومزبرها من غضب الله وأليم عقابه ما لا قبل لها به فذلك خديعته نفسه ظنا منه مع إساءته إليها في أمر معادها أنه إليها محسن كما قال تعالى " وما يخدعون إلا أنفسهم وما يشعرون " إعلاما منه عباده المؤمنين أن المنافقين بإساءتهم إلى أنفسهم في إسخاطهم عليها ربهم بكفرهم وشركهم وتكذيبهم غير شاعرين ولا دارين ولكنهم على عمى من أمرهم مقيمين. وقال ابن أبي حاتم أنبأنا علي بن المبارك فيما كتب إلي حدثنا زيد بن المبارك حدثنا محمد بن نور عن ابن جريج في قوله تعالى يخادعون الله قال يظهرون لا إله إلا الله يريدون أن يحرزوا بذلك دماءهم وأموالهم وفي أنفسهم غير ذلك . وقال سعيد عن قتادة " ومن الناس من يقول آمنا بالله وباليوم الآخر وما هم بمؤمنين يخادعون الله والذين آمنوا وما يخدعون إلا أنفسهم وما يشعرون " نعت المنافق عند كثير : خنع الأخلاق يصدق بلسانه وينكر بقلبه ويخالف بعمله يصبح على حال ويمسي على غيره ويمسي على حال ويصبح على غيره ويتكفأ تكفأ السفينة كلما هبت ريح هبت معها .

"يخادعون الله والذين آمنوا" بإظهار خلاف ما أبطنوه من الكفر ليدفعوا عنهم أحكامه الدنيوية "وما يخدعون إلا أنفسهم" لأن وبال خداعهم راجع إليهم فيفتضحون في الدنيا بإطلاع الله نبيه على ما أبطنوه ويعاقبون في الآخرة "وما يشعرون" يعلمون أن خداعهم لأنفسهم والمخادعة هنا من واحد كعاقبت اللص وذكر الله فيها تحسين وفي قراءة وما يخدعون

قال علماؤنا : معنى " يخادعون الله " أي يخادعونه عند أنفسهم وعلى ظنهم . وقيل : قال ذلك لعملهم عمل المخادع . وقيل : في الكلام حذف , تقديره : يخادعون رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم , عن الحسن وغيره . وجعل خداعهم لرسوله خداعا له , لأنه دعاهم برسالته , وكذلك إذا خادعوا المؤمنين فقد خادعوا الله . ومخادعتهم : ما أظهروه من الإيمان خلاف ما أبطنوه من الكفر , ليحقنوا دماءهم وأموالهم , ويظنون أنهم قد نجوا وخدعوا , قاله جماعة من المتأولين . وقال أهل اللغة : أصل الخدع في كلام العرب الفساد , حكاه ثعلب عن ابن الأعرابي . وأنشد : أبيض اللون لذيذ طعمه طيب الريق إذا الريق خدع قلت : فـ " يخادعون الله " على هذا , أي يفسدون إيمانهم وأعمالهم فيما بينهم وبين الله تعالى بالرياء . وكذا جاء مفسرا عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم على ما يأتي . وفي التنزيل : " يراءون الناس " . [ النساء : 142 ] وقيل : أصله الإخفاء , ومنه مخدع البيت الذي يحرز فيه الشيء , حكاه ابن فارس وغيره . وتقول العرب : انخدع الضب في جحره .

I'raab - grammatical analysis of the Qur'an

«يُخادِعُونَ» فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون ، والواو فاعل.
«اللَّهَ» لفظ الجلالة مفعول به منصوب ، والجملة مستأنفة وقيل حالية.
«وَالَّذِينَ» الواو عاطفة ، الذين اسم موصول معطوف على اللّه.
«آمَنُوا» فعل ماض مبني على الضم والواو فاعل ، والجملة صلة موصول لا محل لها.
«وَما» الواو حالية ، ما نافية ، «يَخْدَعُونَ» مثل يخادعون.
«إِلَّا» أداة حصر ،
«أَنْفُسَهُمْ» مفعول به والهاء في محل جر بالإضافة والميم للجمع.
«وَما يَشْعُرُونَ» الواو استئنافية ، ما نافية ، وجملة يشعرون استئنافية لا محل لها.

Similar Verses

58vs18

يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهُ جَمِيعاً فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَيْءٍ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَ
,

4vs142

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُواْ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ قَامُواْ كُسَالَى يُرَآؤُونَ النَّاسَ وَلاَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللّهَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً