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"Ba mu taɓa ji ba, game da wannan a cikin addinin ƙarshe. Wannan bai zama ba fãce ƙiren ƙarya."
Asbabu n-Nuzuul (Occasions of Revelation)
(Maketh he the gods One God? Lo! that is an astounding thingﾅ) [38:5-11]. Abuﾒl-Qasim ibn Abi Nasr al-
Khuzai informed us> Muhammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Hamdawayh> Abu Bakr ibn Abi Darim al-Hafiz>
Muhammad ibn Uthman in Abi Shaybah> his father> Muhammad ibn Abd Allah al-Asdi> Sufyan> al-
Amash> Yahya ibn Umarah> Said ibn Jubayr> Ibn Abbas who said: ﾓWhen Abu Talib fell ill, the Quraysh and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, went to visit him. There was, close to the head of Abu Talib, enough room for one man to sit, so Abu Jahl rushed to it to prevent the Prophet from sitting there.
They complained to Abu Talib about the Prophet. Abu Talib said to the Prophet: Son of my brother, what is it that you want from your own people?ﾒ He said: O uncle, I want from them one word by means of which all the Arabs will surrender to them and all the non-Arabs will pay exemption tax to themﾒ. What is this word?ﾒ he asked. He said: There is no deity except Allahﾒ. They all exclaimed: Does he make the gods One God?ﾒ The Qurﾒan was then revealed about them (Sad. By the renowned Qurﾒan, nay, but those who disbelieve are in false pride and schismﾅ) up to Allahﾒs words (This is naught but an invention) [38:1-7]ﾔ.
The commentators of the Qurﾒan said: ﾓWhen Umar ibn al-Khattab embraced Islam, the Muslims were
overjoyed while the Quraysh was devastated. Al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah said to the nobles and chiefs of
Quraysh: Go to Abu Talib and say to him: you are our elder and chief and you know well what these fools have done.
We have come to you so that you judge between us and your nephewﾒ. Abu Talib sent for the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and when he answered his call, he said to him: Son of my brother, these are your own people and they are asking you for fairness, so do not swerve completely from themﾒ. The Prophet asked: What do they want from me?ﾒ They said: Cease mentioning our deities and we will leave you alone with your Godﾒ.
The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said to them: Will you
grant me one word by means of which you will rule over the Arabs and subjugate the non-Arabs?ﾒ Abu Jahl said: We will surely grant it and grant you ten like it!ﾒ The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: Say: there is no deity except Allah!ﾒ The Quraysh were repelled and left, saying: Does he make the gods One God? How can One God be sufficient for the whole creation?ﾒ And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed about them these verses, up to His words (The folk of Noah before them denied (their messenger)ﾅ) [38:12]ﾔ.
The Reason for the Revelation of These Ayat
Abu Jafar bin Jarir recorded that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"When Abu Talib fell sick, some of the people of the Quraysh, including Abu Jahl, entered upon him and said,
`Your brother's son is insulting our gods; he does such and such and says such and such. Why don't you send for him and tell him not to do that?'
So he sent for the Prophet and he entered the house. There was space enough for one man to sit between them and Abu Talib, and Abu Jahl, may Allah curse him, was afraid that if (the Prophet) were to sit beside Abu Talib he would be more lenient with him, so he jumped up and sat in that spot, and the Messenger of Allah could find nowhere to sit near his uncle, so he sat by the door. Abu Talib said to him,
`O son of my brother, why are your people complaining about you and claiming that you insult their gods and say such and such?'
They made so many complaints against him. Thereupon, he said,
يَا عَمِّ إِنِّي أُرِيدُهُمْ عَلَى كَلِمَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ يَقُولُونَهَا تَدِينُ لَهُمْ بِهَا الْعَرَبُ، وَتُؤَدِّي إِلَيْهِمْ بِهَا الْعَجَمُ الْجِزْيَة
O uncle, all I want from them is one word which, if they say it, the Arabs will become their followers and the non-Arabs will pay Jizyah to them.
They were worried about what he said, so they said,
`One word Yes, by your father, (we will say) ten words! What is it?'
Abu Talib said, `What word is it?, O son of my brother'
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا الله
La ilaha illallah.
They stood up in agitation, brushing down their clothes, saying,
أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَهًا وَاحِدًا إِنَّ هَذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ Has he made the gods into One God. Verily, this is a curious thing! Then this passage was revealed, from this Ayah to the Ayah: ... بَلْ لَمَّا يَذُوقُوا عَذَابِ (...Nay, but they have not tasted (My) torment!)''
This is the wording of Abu Kurayb.
Something similar was also recorded by Imam Ahmad and An-Nasa'i, and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan.''
مَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَذَا فِي الْمِلَّةِ الْآخِرَةِ ...
We have not heard (the like) of this in the religion of these later days.
means, `we have not heard anything like this Tawhid to which Muhammad calls us in the religion of these later days.'
Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"We have not heard of this from the religion of these later days (meaning Christianity); if this Qur'an were true, the Christians would have told us about it.''
... إِنْ هَذَا إِلَّا اخْتِلَاقٌ ﴿٧﴾
This is nothing but an invention!
Mujahid and Qatadah said,
Ibn Abbas said,
قال الترمذي حسن وقولهم " ما سمعنا بهذا في في الملة الآخرة " أي ما سمعنا بهذا الذي يدعونا إليه محمد من التوحيد في الملة الآخرة قال مجاهد وقتادة وأبو زيد يعنون دين قريش وقال غيرهم يعنون النصرانية قالوا محمد بن كعب والسدي وقال العوفي عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما ما سمعنا بهذا في الملة الآخرة يعني النصرانية قالوا لو كان هذا القرآن حقا لأخبرتنا به النصارى " إن اختلاق ".
"ما سمعنا بهذا في الملة الآخرة" أي ملة عيسى "إن" ما "هذا إلا اختلاق" كذب
قال ابن عباس والقرظي وقتادة ومقاتل والكلبي والسدي : يعنون ملة عيسى النصرانية وهي آخر الملل . والنصارى يجعلون مع الله إلها . وقال مجاهد وقتادة أيضا : يعنون ملة قريش . وقال الحسن : ما سمعنا أن هذا يكون في آخر الزمان . وقيل : أي ما سمعنا من أهل الكتاب أن محمدا رسول حق .
I'raab - grammatical analysis of the Qur'an
ما» نافية «سَمِعْنا» ماض وفاعله «بِهذا» متعلقان بسمعنا «فِي الْمِلَّةِ» متعلقان بسمعنا «الْآخِرَةِ» صفة «إِنْ» نافية «هذا» مبتدأ «إِلَّا» حرف حصر «اخْتِلاقٌ» خبر