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59vs6

وَمَا أَفَاء اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَى مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Wama afaa Allahu AAala rasoolihi minhum fama awjaftum AAalayhi min khaylin wala rikabin walakinna Allaha yusallitu rusulahu AAala man yashao waAllahu AAala kulli shayin qadeerun

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Yoruba Translation

Hausa Translation

Kuma abin da Allah Ya sanya ya zama ganĩma ga ManzonSa, daga gare su, to, ba ku yi hari a kansa da dawãki ko rãƙuma ba amma Allah ne Ya rinjãyar da ManzanninSa a kan wanda Yake so, kuma Allah Mai ĩkon yi ne a kan kõme.

English Translation

What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from them - for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: but Allah gives power to His messengers over any He pleases: and Allah has power over all things.
And whatever Allah restored to His Messenger from them you did not press forward against it any horse or a riding camel but Allah gives authority to His messengers against whom He pleases, and Allah has power over all things.
And that which Allah gave as spoil unto His messenger from them, ye urged not any horse or riding-camel for the sake thereof, but Allah giveth His messenger lordship over whom He will. Allah is Able to do all things.

Asbabu n-Nuzuul (Occasions of Revelation)

(All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifieth Allahナ Allah is Able to do all things) [59:1-6]. The commentators of the Quran said: モThis verse was revealed about Banul-Nadir. When the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, moved to Medina, they signed a treaty with him in which they agreed no fight against him or with him and the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consented.
Then when the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, defeated the idolaters at Badr, Banul-Nadir said: By Allah, he is the Prophet whose description we find in the Torah; he will not be defeated. However, when the Muslims were defeated at Uhud, they broke their pledge and showed enmity toward the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and Muslims. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, surrounded them and then they signed a settlement treaty in which it was agreed that they leave Medinaヤ. Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Farisi informed us> Muhammad ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Fadl al-Tajir> Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Hafiz> Muhammad ibn Yahya> Abd al-Razzaq> Mamar> al-Zuhri> Ibn Kab ibn Malik> one of the Companions of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, who related that the unbelievers of Quraysh wrote the following to the Jews after the Battle of Badr: モYou are people of armaments and fortresses. Verily, you either fight our man or we shall do this and that, such that nothing will prevent us from the bracelets on your womens ankletsヤ.
When their letter reached the Jews, the Banul-Nadir were unanimously in favour of treason. They sent to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, saying: モCome with thirty of your men and we will send thirty of our men. Let us meet in a location halfway between you and us so that our men hear you and if they believe in you, we will all believe in youヤ. However, when they reached a certain location, some Jews said: モHow are you going to get to him when he has with him thirty of his Companions who all desire to die before him? Send to him and say: How are we going to understand [what you are going to say to us] when there are sixty of us? Come along with three of your Companions and three of our scholars will meet you.
If they believe in you, we will all believe in you and follow. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, proceeded with three of his Companions. On the other side, three Jews proceeded armed with knives, intending to kill the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. A sincere woman advisor from Banul-Nadir sent a message to her brother, a Muslim from the Helpers, informing him of the treachery which the Banul-Nadir were planning against the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace.
Her brother hurriedly set off to see the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace. He caught up with him and informed him of the plan, and so the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, went back. The following day, he sent troops to them. He besieged their fortress and fought them until they agreed to move out of Medina, carrying with them anything their camels could carry, except for armaments. They proceeded to destroy their own houses and take whatever wood they could take with them. Allah, exalted is He, therefore, revealed (All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifieth Allahナ Allah is Able to do all things)ヤ.
(Whatsoever palm-trees ye cut downナ) [59:5]. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, headed toward Banul-Nadir and they took refuge in their fortresses, he ordered the cutting down and burning of their palm-trees. The enemies of Allah were alarmed. They said: モYou claim, O Muhammad, that you seek goodness, is there any goodness in damaging productive trees and cutting down palm-trees?ヤ They also said to him: モIs corruption in the earth part of what you claim has been revealed to you?ヤ The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, was distressed upon hearing this, and the Muslims were affected and feared that this may be an act of corruption. And they disagreed amongst themselves.
Some said: モDo not cut the palm-trees down for it is part of what Allah has given us as spoilsヤ. Others said: モWe should rather cut them down!ヤ And so Allah, glorified and exalted is He, revealed (Whatsoever palmtrees ye cut downナ) confirming the opinion of those who warned against cutting the palm-trees down and, at the same time, stating the lawfulness of cutting them down. He informed that the cutting down of trees or leaving them standing is only by the leave of Allah, exalted is He. Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Muzakki informed us> his father> Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Thaqafi> Qutaybah> al-Layth ibn Sad> Nafi> Ibn Umar who related that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, burnt and cut down the palm-trees of Banul-Nadir which were at al-Buwayrah. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Whatsoever palm-trees ye cut down or left standing on their roots, it was by Allahs leave, in order that He might confound the evil-livers).
This was narrated by Bukhari and Muslim from Qutaybah. Abu Bakr ibn al-Harith informed us> Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Jafar> Abu Yahya al-Razi> Sahl ibn Uthman> Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak> Musa ibn Uqbah> Nafi> Ibn Umar who related that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, burnt and cut down the palm-trees of Banul-Nadir at al-Buwayrah, and it is about this that Hassan said: The trees of Banu Luayy were deemed unworthy In front of the raging fire at al-Buwayrah.
It is also about this that this verse (Whatsoever palm-trees ye cut down or left standing on their roots, it was by Allahs leaveナ). This was narrated by Muslim> Said ibn Mansur> Ibn al-Mubarak. Abu Bakr informed us> Abd Allah> Salm ibn Isam> Rustah> Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi> Muhammad ibn Maymun ibn al-Tammar> Jurmuz> Hatim al-Najjar> Ikrimah> Ibn Abbas who said: モA Jew came to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said: I will stand up and pray, The Prophet said to him: Allah has decreed for you that you pray.
The man said: I will sit down, and the Prophet said to him: Allah has decreed for you that you sit down. The Jew said: I will proceed to this tree and cut it down, and the Prophet said: Allah has decreed for you that you cut it down. Gabriel, peace be upon him, then came and said: O Muhammad, you have been taught your proof just as Abraham, peace be upon him, was taught it.
And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Whatsoever palm-trees ye cut down or left standing on their roots, it was by Allahs leave, in order that He might confound the evil-livers), i.e. the Jewsヤ.

Tafseer (English)

The Fai' and how it is spent

Allah the Exalted explains the regulations for Fai', the booty that the Muslims acquire from the disbelievers, without fighting them or using cavalry and camelry in war against them.

For instance, the booty collected from Bani An-Nadir was not acquired because of fighting them using horses and camels. The Muslims did not fight Bani An-Nadir in battle, but Allah forced them out of their forts on account of the fear that He placed in their hearts for Allah's Messenger Therefore, it was Fai' that Allah awarded His Messenger, with his discretion to spend it however he sees fit.

Indeed, the Prophet spent the Fai' on righteous causes and for the benefit of Muslims in the areas that Allah mentioned in this Ayat,

وَمَا أَفَاء اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ ...

And what Allah gave as booty (Fai') to His Messenger from them.

meaning, from Bani An-Nadir,

... فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ ...

for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry.

refering to using camels,

... وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَى مَن يَشَاء وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿٦﴾

But Allah gives power to His Messengers over whomsoever He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things.

mean, Allah is powerful and cannot be resisted or opposed; He is the Compeller over all things.

Tafseer (Arabic)

يقول تعالى مبينا ما الفيء وما صفته وما حكمه فالفيء كل مال أخذ من الكفار من غير قتال ولا إيجاف خيل ولا ركاب كأموال بني النضير هذه فإنها مما لم يوجف المسلمون عليه بخيل ولا ركاب أي لم يقاتلوا الأعداء فيها بالمبارزة والمصاولة بل نزل أولئك من الرعب الذي ألقى الله في قلوبهم من هيبة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأفاءه الله على رسوله ولهذا تصرف فيه كما يشاء فرده على المسلمين في وجوه البر والمصالح التي ذكرها الله عز وجل في هذه الآيات فقال تعالى " وما أفاء الله على رسوله منهم" أي من بني النضير " فما أوجفتم عليه من خيل ولا ركاب " يعني الإبل " ولكن الله يسلط رسله على من يشاء والله على كل شيء قدير " أي هو قدير لا يغالب ولا يمانع بل هو القاهر لكل شيء .

"وما أفاء" رد "الله على رسوله منهم فما أوجفتم" أسرعتم يا مسلمون "عليه من" زائدة "خيل ولا ركاب" إبل أي لم تقاسوا فيه مشقة "ولكن الله يسلط رسله على من يشاء والله على كل شيء قدير" فلا حق لكم فيه ويختص به النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ومن ذكر معه في الآية الثانية من الأصناف الأربعة على ما كان يقسمه من أن لكل منهم خمس الخمس وله صلى الله عليه وسلم الباقي يفعل فيه ما يشاء فأعطى منه المهاجرين وثلاثة من الأنصار لفقرهم

هذه الآية والتي بعدها إلى قوله " شديد العقاب " قوله تعالى : " وما أفاء الله " يعني ما رده الله تعالى " على رسوله " من أموال بني النضير . " فما أوجفتم عليه " أوضعتم عليه . والإيجاف : الإيضاع في السير وهو الإسراع ; يقال : وجف الفرس إذا أسرع , وأوجفته أنا أي حركته وأتعبته ; ومنه قول تميم بن مقبل : مذاويد بالبيض الحديث صقالها عن الركب أحيانا إذا الركب أوجفوا والركاب الإبل , واحدها راحلة . يقول : لم تقطعوا إليها شقة ولا لقيتم بها حربا ولا مشقة ; وإنما كانت من المدينة على ميلين ; قاله الفراء . فمشوا إليها مشيا ولم يركبوا خيلا ولا إبلا ; إلا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فإنه ركب جملا وقيل حمارا مخطوما بليف , فافتتحها صلحا وأجلاهم وأخذ أموالهم . فسأل المسلمون النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يقسم لهم فنزلت : " وما أفاء الله على رسوله منهم فما أوجفتم عليه " الآية . فجعل أموال بني النضير للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم خاصة يضعها حيث شاء ; فقسمها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بين المهاجرين . قال الواقدي : ورواه ابن وهب عن مالك ; ولم يعط الأنصار منها شيئا إلا ثلاثة نفر محتاجين ; منهم أبو دجانة سماك بن خرشة , وسهل بن حنيف , والحارث بن الصمة . وقيل : إنما أعطى رجلين , سهلا وأبا دجانة . ويقال : أعطى سعد بن معاذ سيف ابن أبي الحقيق , وكان سيفا له ذكر عندهم . ولم يسلم من بني النضير إلا رجلان : سفيان بن عمير , وسعد بن وهب ; أسلما على أموالهما فأحرزاها . وفي صحيح مسلم عن عمر قال : كانت أموال بني النضير مما أفاء الله على رسوله مما لم يوجف عليه المسلمون بخيل ولا ركاب , وكانت للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم خاصة , فكان ينفق على أهله نفقة سنة , وما بقي يجعله في الكراع والسلاح عدة في سبيل الله تعالى . وقال العباس لعمر - رضي الله عنهما - : اقض بيني وبين هذا الكاذب الآثم الغادر الخائن - يعني عليا رضي الله عنه - فيما أفاء الله على رسوله من أموال بني النضير . فقال عمر : أتعلمان أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : ( لا نورث ما تركناه صدقة ) قالا نعم . قال عمر : إن الله عز وجل كان خص رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم بخاصة ولم يخصص بها أحدا غيره . قال : " ما أفاء الله على رسوله من أهل القرى فلله وللرسول " ( ما أدري هل قرأ الآية التي قبلها أم لا ) فقسم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بينكم أموال بني النضير , فوالله ما استأثرها عليكم ولا أخذها دونكم حتى بقي هذا المال ; فكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يأخذ منه نفقة سنة , ثم يجعل ما بقي أسوة المال ... الحديث بطوله , خرجه مسلم . وقيل : لما ترك بنو النضير ديارهم وأموالهم طلب المسلمون أن يكون لهم فيها حظ كالغنائم ; فبين الله تعالى أنها فيء وكان جرى ثم بعض القتال ; لأنهم حوصروا أياما وقاتلوا وقتلوا , ثم صالحوا على الجلاء . ولم يكن قتال على التحقيق ; بل جرى مبادئ القتال وجرى الحصار , وخص الله تلك الأموال برسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم . وقال مجاهد : أعلمهم الله تعالى وذكرهم أنه إنما نصر رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ونصرهم بغير كراع ولا عدة . " ولكن الله يسلط رسله على من يشاء " أي من أعدائه . وفي هذا بيان أن تلك الأموال كانت خاصة لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم دون أصحابه .

I'raab - grammatical analysis of the Qur'an

«وَما» الواو استئنافية وما اسم موصول مبتدأ «أَفاءَ اللَّهُ» ماض ولفظ الجلالة فاعله والجملة صلة ما «عَلى رَسُولِهِ» متعلقان بالفعل «مِنْهُمْ» حال «فَما» الفاء واقعة في جواب الموصول «ما» نافية «أَوْجَفْتُمْ» ماض وفاعله والجملة خبر المبتدأ والجملة الاسمية استئنافية لا محل لها ، «عَلَيْهِ» متعلقان بالفعل «مِنْ خَيْلٍ» مجرور لفظا بمن الزائدة منصوب محلا مفعول به «وَلا رِكابٍ» معطوف على خيل ، «وَلكِنَّ اللَّهَ» الواو حالية لكن واسمها «يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ» مضارع ومفعوله والفاعل مستتر والجملة الفعلية خبر لكن والجملة الاسمية حال ، «عَلى مَنْ» متعلقان بالفعل «يَشاءُ» مضارع فاعله مستتر والجملة صلة «وَاللَّهُ» لفظ الجلالة مبتدأ «عَلى كُلِّ» متعلقان بقدير «شَيْ ءٍ» مضاف إليه «قَدِيرٌ» خبر والجملة استئنافية لا محل لها.

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