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قَدْ فَرَضَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ تَحِلَّةَ أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَاللَّهُ مَوْلَاكُمْ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

Qad farada Allahu lakum tahillata aymanikum waAllahu mawlakum wahuwa alAAaleemu alhakeemu

Index Terms

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Yoruba Translation

Hausa Translation

Haƙĩƙa Allah ya faralta muku warware(2) rantsuwõyinku, kuma Allah ne Mataimakinku kuma shĩ ne Masani, Mai hikima.

English Translation

Allah has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your oaths (in some cases): and Allah is your Protector, and He is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom.
Allah indeed has sanctioned for you the expiation of your oaths and Allah is your Protector, and He is the Knowing the Wise.
Allah hath made lawful for you (Muslims) absolution from your oaths (of such a kind), and Allah is your Protector. He is the Knower, the Wise.

Asbabu n-Nuzuul (Occasions of Revelation)

Tafseer (English)

Allah censures His Prophet for Prohibiting Himself from what He has allowed for Him In the Book of Vows

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ubayd bin Umayr said that he heard A'ishah claiming that Allah's Messenger used to stay for a period in the house of Zaynab bint Jahsh and drink honey in her house. (She said) "Hafsah and I decided that when the Prophet entered upon either of us, we would say,

`I smell Maghafir on you. Have you eaten Maghafir'

When he entered upon one of us, she said that to him.

He replied (to her),

لَا، بَلْ شَرِبْتُ عَسَلًا عِنْدَ زَيْنَبَ بِنْتِ جَحْشٍ وَلَنْ أَعُودَ لَه

No, but I drank honey in the house of Zaynab bint Jahsh, and I will never drink it again.''

Then the following was revealed;

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿١﴾

قَدْ فَرَضَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ تَحِلَّةَ أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَاللَّهُ مَوْلَاكُمْ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿٢﴾

وَإِذْ أَسَرَّ النَّبِيُّ إِلَى بَعْضِ أَزْوَاجِهِ حَدِيثًا فَلَمَّا نَبَّأَتْ بِهِ وَأَظْهَرَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ عَرَّفَ بَعْضَهُ وَأَعْرَضَ عَن بَعْضٍ فَلَمَّا نَبَّأَهَا بِهِ قَالَتْ مَنْ أَنبَأَكَ هَذَا قَالَ نَبَّأَنِيَ الْعَلِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ ﴿٣﴾

إِن تَتُوبَا إِلَى اللَّهِ فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا...

O Prophet!

Why do you forbid that which Allah has allowed to you, seeking to please your wives? And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Allah has already ordained for you (O men) the absolution from your oaths. And Allah is your Protector and He is the All-Knower, the All-Wise.

And (remember) when the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his wives, then she told it.

And Allah made it known to him; he informed part thereof and left a part.

Then when he told her thereof, she said: "Who told you this?''

He said: "The All-Knower, the All-Aware has told me.''

If you two turn in repentance to Allah, your hearts are indeed so inclined;

in reference to `A'ishah and Hafsah.

وَإِذْ أَسَرَّ النَّبِيُّ إِلَى بَعْضِ أَزْوَاجِهِ حَدِيثًا And (remember) when the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his wives, which refers to this saying, بَلْ شَرِبْتُ عَسَلًا But I have drunk honey. Ibrahim bin Musa said that Hisham said that it also meant his saying,

وَلَنْ أَعُودَ لَهُ وَقَدْ حَلَفْتُ فَلَا تُخْبِرِي بِذَلِكِ أَحَدًا

I will not drink it anymore, I have taken an oath to that, therefore, do not inform anybody about it.

Al-Bukhari also recorded this Hadith in the Book of Divorce;

then he said,

"Al-Maghafir is a type of sap, and in Ar-Rimth (a type of citrus) its taste is sweet...''

Al-Jawhari said,

"The `Urfut is a tree of the shrub variety, which secretes Maghfur.''

Muslim collected this Hadith from A'ishah in the Book of Divorce in his Sahih, and his wording is the same as Al-Bukhari in the Book of Vows.

In the Book of Divorce, Al-Bukhari recorded that A'ishah said,

"Allah's Messenger liked sweets and honey. After performing the `Asr prayer, he used to visit his wives, going close to them. So he went to Hafsah, daughter of Umar, and stayed with her more than his usual stay. I (A'ishah) became jealous and asked about that. It was said to me,

`A woman of her family sent her a small vessel of honey as a gift, and she gave a drink to Allah's Messenger made from it.'

I said, `By Allah, we will contrive a plot against him.'

I said to Sawdah bint Zam`ah, `When the Messenger visits you and draws close to you, say to him, `Have you eaten Maghafir?' And when he says to you, `No', then ask him, `What is this odor?'

He will say to you, `Hafsah has given me a drink of honey.' Then you should say to him, `The honeybees might have eaten from Urfut, and I will also say the same to him. Safiyyah, you should also say this.'

Sawdah later said, `It was under compulsion that I had decided to state that which you told me; soon, by Allah, he was standing at my door.'

So when Allah's Messenger came near her, she said, `O Messenger of Allah! Did you eat Maghafir'

He said, `No.'

She again said, `Then what is this odor'

He said, سَقَتْنِي حَفْصَةُ شَرْبَةَ عَسَل Hafsah gave me honey to drink.

She said, `The honeybees might have eaten from `Urfut.'''

A'ishah continued, "When he came to me I said the same to him."

He then visited Safiyyah and she also said similar to him.

When he again visited Hafsah, she said, `O Messenger of Allah, should I not give you that (drink)?'

He said, لَا حَاجَةَ لِي فِيه I do not need it.

Sawdah said, `By Allah! We have prevented him from drinking honey.'

I said to her, `Keep quiet!'''

Muslim also recorded this Hadith, but this wording is from Al-Bukhari.

In the narration of Muslim, A'ishah said,

"The Messenger of Allah used to hate to have a bad odor coming from him''

This is why they suggested to him that he ate Maghafir, because it causes a bad odor. When he said, بَلْ شَرِبْتُ عَسَلًا No, I had some honey.

They said that the bees ate from a tree that is called Al-`Urfut, which has Maghafir gum, suggesting that this is the reason behind the bad odor they claimed was coming from him.

The latter narration, collected through Urwah from A'ishah, mentions that it was Hafsah who gave the Prophet the honey.

In another narration collected from `Ubayd bin `Umayr, from A'ishah, it was Zaynab bint Jahsh who gave the honey to the Prophet, while A'ishah and Hafsah were the plotters. Allah knows best.

Some might say that they were two separate incidents. However, it is not likely that the Ayat were revealed about both incidents, if indeed they were two separate incidents. Allah knows best.

A Hadith that Imam Ahmad collected in the Musnad mentions that A'ishah and Hafsah were the plotters.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

"I was eager to ask `Umar about the two ladies among the wives of the Prophet , about whom Allah said, إِن تَتُوبَا إِلَى اللَّهِ فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا (If you two turn in repentance to Allah your hearts are indeed so inclined);

Then I performed Hajj along with Umar, and on our way back from Hajj he went aside (to relieve himself). I also went aside along with him carrying a tumbler of water. When he finished and returned, I poured water on his hands from the tumbler and he performed ablution. I said,

`O Commander of the faithful! Who were the two ladies among the wives of the Prophet, to whom Allah said, إِن تَتُوبَا إِلَى اللَّهِ فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا (If you two turn in repentance to Allah your hearts are indeed so inclined),'

Umar said, `I am astonished at your question, O Ibn `Abbas.''' -

Az-Zuhri (a subnarrator) said that Umar did not like the question, but he still answered it, saying that they were `A'ishah and Hafsah."

Then `Umar went on relating the story and said,

`We, the people of Quraysh, used to have authority over our women. But when we came to live with the Ansar, we noticed that the Ansari women had the upper hand over their men, so our women started acquiring the habits of the Ansari women. At that time, I was residing at the house of Umayyah bin Zayd, in Al-Awali. Once I got angry with my wife, and she talked back to me; I disliked her answering me back. She said,

`Why do you dislike me talking back to you By Allah, the wives of the Prophet talk back to him, and some of them may not speak with him for the whole day, until nightfall.'

Then I went to Hafsah and asked her, `Do you talk back to Allah's Messenger'

She said, `Yes.'

I asked, `Does any of you keep Allah's Messenger angry all day long, until night?'

She replied, `Yes.'

I said, `Whoever among you does this is a ruined, losing person! Doesn't she fear that Allah may get angry for the anger of His Messenger and, thus, she will be ruined. Don't ask Allah's Messenger too many things, and don't retort him in any case. Demand from me whatever you like, and don't be tempted to imitate your neighbor, for she is more beautiful than you, and more beloved to Allah's Messenger than you.'

He meant `A'ishah.

I, and an Ansari neighbor of mine used to visit the Prophet in turns. He used to go one day, and I another day. When I went I would bring him the news of what had happened that day regarding the revelation and when he went, he used to do the same for me.

In those days it was rumored that the Ghassan (tribe) were preparing their horses to invade us. My companion went and returned to us at night and knocked at my door. I came out to him. He said that a grave thing happened.

I asked him, `What is it Have Ghassan come'

He replied that it was worse and more serious than that, adding that Allah's Messenger had divorced all his wives.

I said, `Hafsah is a ruined loser! I expected that would happen some day.'

So I dressed myself and I performed the Subh prayer. I went to Hafsah and found her weeping. I asked her, `Has Allah's Messenger divorced all of you'

She replied, `I don't know. He is there alone in the upper room.'

I went to the upper room and asked a black slave of the Prophet to ask for his permission to see me, and the boy went in and then came out saying, `I mentioned you to him and he remained silent.'

I then went out and came to the Minbar and found a group of people around it and some of them were weeping. I sat with them for some time, but could not endure the situation. So, I requested to the boy, `Will you get the permission for Umar?'

He went in and then came out saying, `I mentioned you to him, but he did not reply.'

So, I went to Minbar and sat with the people who were sitting by the Minbar, but I could not bear the situation, so I went to the boy again and said, `Will you get the permission for Umar?'

He went in and brought the same reply as before.

When I was leaving, behold, he called me saying, `Allah's Messenger has granted you permission.'

So, I entered the Prophet's room, greeted him with the Salam and saw him lying on a mat without bedding on it, and the mat had left its mark on the body of the Prophet.

I said, `Have you divorced your wives, O Allah's Messenger'

He raised his eyes to me and replied no.

I said, `Allahu Akbar. O Allah's Messenger! We, the people of Quraysh used to have the upper hand over our women. But when we came to Al-Madinah, we found a people whose women had the upper hand over them. Our women started learning this behavior from them. Once, I got angry with my wife, and she talked back to me. I disliked that behavior from her and she said, `Why do you dislike that I talk back to you By Allah, the Prophet's wives talk back to him and one of them would ignore him the whole day, until the night.' I said to her, `Whoever does this among them is the ruined loser! Does she feel safe from Allah getting angry with her on account of His Messenger's anger In that case, she would be ruined.'

On that the Prophet smiled.

I then said, `O Allah's Messenger! I went to Hafsah and said to her, `Do not be tempted to imitate your companion (`A'ishah) for she is more beautiful than you and more beloved to the Prophet.'

The Prophet smiled again.

When I saw him smiling, I said, `Does the Messenger feel calm?'

He said, `Yes.' So, I sat down and cast a glance at the room, and by Allah, I couldn't see anything of importance, except three hides. I said,

`Invoke Allah, O Allah's Messenger, to make your followers prosperous, for the Persians and the Byzantines have been made prosperous and given worldly luxuries, even though they do not worship Allah.'

The Prophet sat upright and said,

أَفِي شَكَ أَنْتَ يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ أُولَئِكَ قَوْمٌ عُجِّلَتْ لَهُمْ طَيِّبَاتُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا

O Ibn Al-Khattab! Do you have any doubt These people have been given rewards of their good deeds in this world only.

I asked the Prophet, `Please beg Allah's forgiveness for me, O Allah's Messenger.'

The Prophet swore that he would not go to his wives for one month, because of his severe anger towards them, until Allah the Exalted and Most Honored censured him.''

Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i also collected this Hadith using various chains of narration.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim also collected it from Ibn Abbas, who said,

"For a whole year, I was eager to ask `Umar bin Al-Khattab about an Ayah. However, I hesitated out of respect for him. Once, he went on a Hajj trip and I accompanied him. On our way back, he stopped to relieve himself behind some trees of Arak. I stopped until he finished and then walked along with him and asked him, `O Leader of the believers! Who are the two women who helped each other (or plotted) against the Prophet '''

This is the narration that Al-Bukhari collected, while Muslim recorded that Ibn Abbas asked,

"Who are the two women about whom Allah the Exalted said, وَإِن تَظَاهَرَا عَلَيْهِ but if you help one another against him,''

`Umar replied, "A'ishah and Hafsah.''

Muslim mentioned the rest of the Hadith.

Muslim also recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that Umar bin Al-Khattab said to him,

"When Allah's Messenger stayed away from his wives, I entered the Masjid and found people striking the ground with pebbles. They said, `Allah's Messenger has divorced his wives.' That occurred before Hijab was commanded. I said to myself, `I must investigate this news today.'''

So he mentioned the Hadith in which he went to `A'ishah and Hafsah and admonished them. He then said, `I went in and found Rabah, the servant of Allah's Messenger, sitting on a window sill. I called, `O Rabah, seek permission for me from Allah's Messenger.'''

He then mentioned the story as we mentioned above.

Umar continued,

"I said, `O Messenger of Allah, what trouble do you feel from your wives If you have divorced them, verily Allah is with you, His angels, Jibril, Mikal, I, Abu Bakr and the rest of believers are with you.' Often, when I talked, all praise is due to Allah, I hoped that Allah would testify to the words that I uttered. And so the Ayat of option was revealed.

Tafseer (Arabic)

قال فأنزل الله تعالى " قد فرض الله لكم تحلة أيمانكم " وهذا إسناد صحيح ولم يخرجه أحد من أصحاب الكتب الستة وقد اختاره الحافظ الضياء المقدسي في كتابه المستخرج . وقال ابن جرير أيضا حدثني يعقوب بن إبراهيم ثنا ابن علية ثنا هشام الدستوائي قال كتب إلي يحيى يحدث عن يعلى بن حكيم عن سعيد بن جبير أن ابن عباس كان يقول في الحرام يمين تكفرها وقال ابن عباس " لقد كان لكم في رسول الله أسوة حسنة "يعني أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حرم جاريته فقال الله تعالى " يا أيها النبي لم تحرم ما أحل الله لك - إلى قوله - قد فرض الله لكم تحلة أيمانكم " فكفر يمينه فصير الحرام يمينا. ورواه البخاري عن معاذ بن فضالة عن هشام هو الدستوائي عن يحيى هو ابن أبي كثير عن ابن حكيم وهو يعلى عن سعيد بن جبير عن ابن عباس في الحرام يمين تكفر وقال ابن عباس " لقد كان لكم في رسول الله أسوة حسنة " ورواه مسلم من حديث هشام الدستوائي به وقال النسائي أنا عبد الله بن عبد الصمد بن علي ثنا مخلد بن يزيد ثنا سفيان عن سالم عن سعيد بن جبير عن ابن عباس قال أتاه رجل فقال إني جعلت امرأتي علي حراما قال كذبت ليس عليك بحرام ثم تلا هذه الآية " يا أيها النبي لم تحرم ما أحل الله لك " عليك أغلظ الكفارات عتق رقبة تفرد به النسائي من هذا الوجه بهذا اللفظ وقال الطبراني ثنا محمد بن زكريا ثنا عبد الله بن رجاء ثنا إسرائيل عن مسلم عن مجاهد عن ابن عباس في قوله تعالى " يا أيها النبي لم تحرم ما أحل الله لك " قال حرم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سريته ومن ههنا ذهب من ذهب من الفقهاء ممن قال بوجوب الكفارة على من حرم جاريته أو زوجته أو طعاما أو شرابا أو ملبسا أو شيئا من المباحات وهو مذهب الإمام أحمد وطائفة وذهب الشافعي إلى أنه لا تجب الكفارة فيما عدا الزوجة والجارية إذا حرم عينيهما أو أطلق التحريم فيهما في قول فأما إذا نوى بالتحريم طلاق الزوجة أو عتق الأمة نفذ فيهما وقال ابن أبي حاتم حدثني أبو عبد الله الطهراني أنا حفص بن عمر العدني أنا الحكم بن أبان أنا عكرمة عن ابن عباس قال نزلت هذه الآية " يا أيها النبي لم تحرم ما أحل الله لك " في المرأة التي وهبت نفسها للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهذا قول غريب . والصحيح أن ذلك كان في تحريمه العسل كما قال البخاري عند هذه الآية ثنا إبراهيم بن موسى أنا هشام بن يوسف عن ابن جريج عن عطاء عن عبيد بن عمير عن عائشة قالت كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يشرب عسلا عند زينب بنت جحش ويمكث عندها فتواطأت أنا وحفصة على أيتنا دخل عليها فلتقل له : أكلت مغافير إني أجد منك ريح مغافير . قال" لا ولكني كنت أشرب عسلا عند زينب بنت جحش فلن أعود له وقد حلفت لا تخبري بذلك أحدا " " تبتغي مرضاة أزواجك " هكذا أورد هذا الحديث ههنا بهذا اللفظ . وقال في كتاب الأيمان والنذور ثنا الحسن بن محمد ثنا الحجاج عن ابن جريج قال زعم عطاء أنه سمع عبيد بن عمير يقول سمعت عائشة تزعم أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يمكث عند زينب بنت جحش ويشرب عندها عسلا فتواطأت أنا وحفصة أن أيتنا دخل عليها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فلتقل له إني أجد منك ريح مغافير أكلت مغافير فدخل على إحداهما النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت ذلك له فقال : "لا بل شربت عسلا عند زينب بنت جحش ولن أعود له" فنزلت " يا أيها النبي لم تحرم ما أحل الله لك - إلى قوله تعالى - إن تتوبا إلى الله فقد صغت قلوبكما " لعائشة وحفصة .

"قد فرض الله" شرع "لكم تحلة أيمانكم" تحليلها بالكفارة المذكورة في سورة "المائدة" ومن الأيمان تحريم الأمة وهل كفر صلى الله عليه وسلم ؟ قال مقاتل : أعتق رقبة في تحريم مارية وقال الحسن : لم يكفر لأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم مغفور له "والله مولاكم" ناصركم

تحليل اليمين كفارتها . أي إذا أحببتم استباحة المحلوف عليه , وهو قوله تعالى في سورة " المائدة " : " فكفارته إطعام عشرة مساكين " [ المائدة : 89 ] . ويتحصل من هذا أن من حرم شيئا من المأكول والمشروب لم يحرم عليه عندنا , لأن الكفارة لليمين لا للتحريم على ما بيناه . وأبو حنيفة يراه يمينا في كل شيء , ويعتبر الانتفاع المقصود فيما يحرمه , فإذا حرم طعاما فقد حلف على أكله , أو أمة فعلى وطئها , أو زوجة فعلى الإيلاء منها إذا لم يكن له نية , وإن نوى الظهار فظهار , وإن نوى الطلاق فطلاق بائن . وكذلك إن نوى ثنتين أو ثلاثا . وإن قال : نويت الكذب دين فيما بينه وبين الله تعالى . ولا يدين في القضاء بإبطال الإيلاء . وإن قال : كل حلال عليه حرام ; فعلى الطعام والشراب إذا لم ينو , وإلا فعلى ما نوى . ولا يراه الشافعي يمينا ولكن سببا في الكفارة في النساء وحدهن . وإن نوى الطلاق فهو رجعي عنده , على ما تقدم بيانه . فإن حلف ألا يأكله حنث ويبر بالكفارة . الثانية : فإن حرم أمته أو زوجته فكفارة يمين , كما في صحيح مسلم عن ابن عباس قال : إذا حرم الرجل عليه امرأته , فهي يمين يكفرها . وقال : لقد كان لكم في رسول الله أسوة حسنة . الثالثة : قيل : إن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كفر عن يمينه . وعن الحسن : لم يكفر , لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قد غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه وما تأخر , وكفارة اليمين في هذه السورة إنما أمر بها الأمة . والأول أصح , وأن المراد بذلك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم . ثم إن الأمة تقتدي به في ذلك . وقد قدمنا عن زيد بن أسلم أنه عليه السلام كفر بعتق رقبة . وعن مقاتل أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أعتق رقبة في تحريم مارية . والله أعلم . وقيل : أي قد فرض الله لكم تحليل ملك اليمين , فبين في قوله تعالى : " ما كان على النبي من حرج فيما فرض الله له " [ الأحزاب : 38 ] أي فيما شرعه له في النساء المحللات . أي حلل لكم ملك الأيمان , فلم تحرم مارية على نفسك مع تحليل الله إياها لك . وقيل : تحلة اليمين الاستثناء , أي فرض الله لكم الاستثناء المخرج عن اليمين . ثم عند قوم يجوز الاستثناء من الأيمان متى شاء وإن تحلل مدة . وعند المعظم لا يجوز إلا متصلا , فكأنه قال : استثن بعد هذا فيما تحلف عليه . وتحلة اليمين تحليلها بالكفارة , والأصل تحللة , فأدغمت . وتفعلة من مصادر فعل ; كالتسمية والتوصية . فالتحلة تحليل اليمين . فكأن اليمين عقد والكفارة حل . وقيل : التحلة الكفارة ; أي إنها تحل للحالف ما حرم على نفسه ; أي إذا كفر صار كمن لم يحلف .

I'raab - grammatical analysis of the Qur'an

«قَدْ فَرَضَ اللَّهُ» قد حرف تحقيق وماض وفاعله والجملة استئنافية لا محل لها «لَكُمْ» متعلقان بالفعل «تَحِلَّةَ أَيْمانِكُمْ» مفعول به مضاف وأيمانكم مضاف إليه «وَ» الواو حالية «اللَّهُ مَوْلاكُمْ» مبتدأ وخبره والجملة حال. «وَهُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ» معطوف على ما قبله.