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فَكُلُواْ مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلاَلاً طَيِّباً وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Fakuloo mimma ghanimtum halalan tayyiban waittaqoo Allaha inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
Sabõda haka, ku ci daga abin da kuka sãmu ganĩma, yanã halal mai kyau. Kuma ku bi Allah da taƙawa. Lalle Allah ne Mai gãfara, Mai jin ƙai.
Asbabu n-Nuzuul (Occasions of Revelation)
(It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the landﾅ) [8:67-69]. Said Mujahid: ﾓIt happened that some of that which was revealed from heaven agreed with many of Umars opinions. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted the Muslims about
the prisoners of Badr, they said: O Messenger of Allah, they are your cousins, so free them in exchange for a ransom. Umar ibn al-Khattab said: No, O Messenger of Allah, you should kill them. Then this verse was revealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land)ﾔ. Said Ibn Umar: ﾓThe Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted Abu Bakr regarding the prisoners of Badr, and the latter said: They are your people and clan, let them go! But when he consulted Umar, the latter said: Kill them. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, freed them in exchange for a ransom. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land) up to his words (Now enjoy what ye have won, as lawful and goodﾅ) [8:69].
When the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, met Umar, he said to him: We almost incurred a misfortune as a result of opposing your view! ﾔ Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Hiri informed us> Hajib ibn Ahmad> Muhammad ibn Hammad> Abu Muawiyah> al-Amash> Amr ibn Murrah> Abu Ubaydah> Abd Allah who said: ﾓWhen the prisoners were brought on the Day of Badr, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: What do you think we should do with these prisoners? Abu Bakr said: O Messenger of Allah, these are your people and kin, spare them and wait that haply Allah, glorious and majestic is He, may relent on them. Umar, on the other hand said: They have given you the lie and expelled you, bring them forward and chop their heads off. Abd Allah ibn Rawahah said: Look for a valley with abundant wood and burn them there, upon which al-Abbas commented: You have severed your ties of kinship! The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, did not answer them and then went in.
Some people said: He will act on Abu Bakrs advice, others said: He will act on Umars advice, while some said: He will act on Abd Allahs advice. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, then came out to them and said: Indeed, Allah, glorious and majestic is He, softens the hearts of
some until they become softer than milk and hardens the hearts of some until they become harder than
The like of you, O Abu Bakr, is the like of Abraham when he said (But whoso followeth me, he verily is of me. And whoso disobeyeth me - still Thou art Forgiving, Merciful) [14:36] and the like of you, O Abu Bakr, is the like of Jesus when he said (If Thou punish them, lo! They are Thy slaves, and if Thou forgive them, lo! Thou, only Thou art the Mighty, the Wise) [8:118]. And the like of you, O Umar, is the like of Moses who said (Our Lord! Destroy their riches and harden their heartsﾅ) [10:88]; and the like of you, O Umar, is the like of Noah who said: (My Lord! Leave not one of the disbelievers in the land) [71:26]. Then, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: Today, you are dependent, you are today dependent; none of them shall be returned except in exchange for a ransom or he will be beheaded.
Allah, glorious and majestic is He, then revealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land) up to his words (Now enjoy what ye have won, as lawful and good) up to the end of the next three versesﾔ.
Abd al-Rahman ibn Hamdan al-Adl informed us> Ahmad ibn Jafar ibn Malik> Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> Ahmad ibn Hanbal> Abu Nuh Qurrad> Ikrimah ibn Ammar> Simak al-Hanafi Abu Zumayl> Ibn Abbas> Umar ibn al-Khattab who said: ﾓWhen the army of the believers met the army of the unbelievers at Badr and the idolaters were defeated (seventy men of them were killed and another seventy captured), the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted Abu Bakr, Umar and Ali about what to do with the prisoners. Abu Bakr said: O Prophet of Allah, these are our brothers, cousins and sons of our clan and my opinion is that you accept a ransom from them, so that what we take from them will be an added strength for us against the unbelievers. And haply Allah will guide them to Islam and be a support to us.
The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, then asked: What do you think, O son of al-Khattab? He said: By Allah, I do not agree with Abu Bakr. My opinion is that you give me so-and-so (a relative of Umar) so that I behead him, and give Aqil to Ali so that he behead him and so and so (al-Abbas ) to Hamzah so that he beheads him. In this way, Allah, glorious and majestic is He, will know that there is no complaisance in our hearts toward the idolaters. These are their notables, leaders and
The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, liked what Abu Bakr said and disliked what I said. And so, he accepted a ransom from them. The following day, Umar said: I went to see the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and found him sitting with Abu Bakr. They were both crying. I said: O Messenger of Allah, what is it that makes you and your companion weep? If I can cry, I will cry with you, if not I will feign crying.
The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ﾓI am crying because of the suggestion of ransoming the prisoners which your fellow believers advised me to do. Your chastisement was closer to you than this tree (and he pointed to a near by tree). Allah, exalted is He, had revealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land) up to His words (ﾅ an awful doom had come upon you on account of what ye took) of ransom. This was narrated by Muslim in his Sahih from Hannad ibn al-Sariyy from Ibn al-Mubarak from Ikrimah ibn Ammar.
فَكُلُواْ مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلاَلاً طَيِّبًا ...
So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good.
The Muslims then took the ransom for their captives.
... وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿٦٩﴾
and have Taqwa of Allah. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
In his Sunan, Imam Abu Dawud recorded that Ibn Abbas said that;
the Messenger of Allah fixed four hundred (Dirhams) in ransom from the people of Jahiliyyah in the aftermath of Badr.
The majority of the scholars say that;
the matter of prisoners of war is up to the Imam. If he decides, he can have them killed, such as in the case of Bani Qurayzah. If he decides, he can accept a ransom for them, as in the case of the prisoners of Badr, or exchange them for Muslim prisoners. The Messenger exchanged a woman and her daughter who were captured by Salamah bin Al-Akwa, for exchange of some Muslims who were captured by the idolators, or if he decides he can take the prisoner as a captives.
قال الله تعالى " فكلوا مما غنمتم حلالا طيبا " الآية . وكذا روى العوفي عن ابن عباس وروي مثله عن أبي هريرة وابن مسعود وسعيد بن جبير وعطاء والحسن البصري وقتادة والأعمش أيضا أن المراد " لولا كتاب من الله سبق " لهذه الأمة بإحلال الغنائم وهو اختيار ابن جرير رحمه الله ويستشهد لهذا القول بما أخرجاه في الصحيحين عن جابر بن عبد الله رضي الله عنه قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم " أعطيت خمسا لم يعطهن أحد من الأنبياء قبلي نصرت بالرعب مسيرة شهر وجعلت لي الأرض مسجدا وطهورا وأحلت لي الغنائم ولم تحل لأحد قبلي وأعطيت الشفاعة وكان النبي يبعث إلى قومه وبعثت إلى الناس عامة " وقال الأعمش عن أبي صالح عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم " لم تحل الغنائم لسود الرءوس غيرنا " ولهذا قال تعالى " فكلوا مما غنمتم حلالا طيبا " الآية . فعند ذلك أخذوا من الأسارى الفداء وقد روى الإمام أبو داود في سننه حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن المبارك العبسي حدثنا سفيان بن حبيب حدثنا شعبة عن أبي العنبس عن أبي الشعثاء عن ابن عباس أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم جعل فداء أهل الجاهلية يوم بدر أربعمائة وقد استمر الحكم في الأسرى عند جمهور العلماء أن الإمام مخير فيهم إن شاء قتل كما فعل ببني قريظة وإن شاء فادى بمال كما فعل بأسرى بدر أو بمن أسر من المسلمين كما فعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في تلك الجارية وابنتها اللتين كانتا في سبي سلمة بن الأكوع حيث ردهما وأخذ في مقابلتهما من المسلمين الذين كانوا عند المشركين وإن شاء استرق من أسر . هذا مذهب الإمام الشافعي وطائفة من العلماء وفي المسألة خلاف آخر بين الأئمة مقرر في موضعه من كتب الفقه .
يقتضي ظاهره أن تكون الغنيمة كلها للغانمين , وأن يكونوا مشتركين فيها على السواء , إلا أن قوله تعالى : " واعلموا أنما غنمتم من شيء فأن لله خمسه " [ الأنفال : 41 ] بين وجوب إخراج الخمس منه وصرفه إلى الوجوه المذكورة . وقد تقدم القول في هذا مستوفى .
I'raab - grammatical analysis of the Qur'an
«فَكُلُوا» فعل أمر مبني على حذف النون ، والواو فاعله والفاء هي الفصيحة.
«مِمَّا» ما اسم موصول في محل جر ومتعلقان بالفعل.
«غَنِمْتُمْ» فعل ماض وفاعله والجملة صلة الموصول.
«حَلالًا» نائب مفعول مطلق أي أكلا حلالا. أو حال.
«وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ» فعل ماض وفاعل ولفظ الجلالة مفعول به والجملة معطوفة على فكلوا .
«إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ» إن واسمها وخبراها والجملة تعليلية.