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إِلَهِ النَّاسِ

Ilahi alnnasi

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Yoruba Translation

Hausa Translation

&quotAbin bautãwar mutãne.&quot

The god (or judge) of Mankind,-
The god of men,
The god of mankind,

Asbabu n-Nuzuul (Occasions of Revelation)

(Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankindナ) [114:1-6]. The commentators of the Quran said: モThe
Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, had a Jewish servant boy. The Jews approached
him and kept after him until he gave them some fallen hair from the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, as well as a few teeth from his comb. The Jews used these to cast a spell of black magic on him.
The person who was behind this was the Jew Labid ibn al-Asam. He then put the hair in a well belonging to Banu Zurayq called Dharwan. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, fell ill for a period of six month, during which the hair of his head fell off; he imagined that he slept with his wives when he did not, and was withering away without knowing the reason. As he was one day sleeping, he saw two angels coming to him.
One of them sat at his head and the other at his feet. The angel who sat at his head asked: What is wrong with the man? The second angel responded: A spell of black magic was cast on him. The first one asked: And who is responsible for this sorcery? The second angel answered: It is Labid ibn al-Asam, the Jew. The first angel asked again: What did he use to cast black magic on him? The second angel said: He used a comb and fallen hair. The first angel asked: Where is it now? The second angel said: It is inside the spadix of a palm tree beneath the stepping stone which is inside the well of Dharwan, at which point the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, woke up.
He said: O Aishah, do you not think that this is from Allah to inform me of the cause of my illness? He then sent Ali [ibn Abi Talib], al-Zubayr [ibn al-Awwam] and Ammar [ibn Yasir] who drained the water of that well as one would drain the dust of henna. They lifted the stone and got the spadix out and found therein some of the hair of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, as well a few teeth from his comb.
They also found with it a string with eleven knots knitted with needles. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed Surah al-Falaq and Surah al-Nas (al-Muawwidhatayn). With each verse that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, read one knot was untied and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, felt some lightness. When the last knot was untied, the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, got up as if he was released from a cord to which he was tied up. Gabriel, peace be upon him, kept saying: In the name of Allah I cast this incantation on you to protect you from anything that might harm you and that Allah heals you from the resentful envier and the evil eye.
Those around him said: O Messenger of Allah, should we not head toward that evil person and kill him? He said: As for me, Allah has cured me, and I dislike causing evil to other people. This is of the forbearance of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peaceヤ. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Jafar informed us> Abu Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hiri> Ahmad ibn Ali al-Mawsili> Mujahid ibn Musa> Abu Usamah> Hisham ibn Urwa> his father> Aishah, may Allah be well pleased with her, who said: モA spell of black magic was cast on the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, such that he used to imagine that he did things when he did not.
He was at my place, one day, and he began imploring Allah in earnest. Then he said: Did you not feel, O Aishah, that Allah has answered me about that which I have enquired? I said: And what is that, O Messenger of Allah? He said: Two angels came to meナ, and he mentioned the whole storyヤ. The whole story is narrated by Bukhari from Ubayd ibn Ismail from Abu Usamah. The same narration has different channels of transmission in both the authentic collections of Bukhari and Muslim. The book Asbab Nuzul al-Quran concludes here, and praise be to Allah, the One, the Munificent, and may Allah bless our master Muhammad, his household and all those who follow them in excellence.

Allah says:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ﴿١﴾

مَلِكِ النَّاسِ﴿٢﴾

إِلَهِ النَّاسِ﴿٣﴾

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of An-Nas,

The King of An-Nas,

The God of An-Nas,

These are three attributes from the attributes of the Lord, the Mighty and Majestic. They are:

- lordship,

- sovereignty and

- divinity.


- He is the Lord of everything,

- the King of everything and

- the God of everything.

All things

- are created by Him,

- owned by Him, and

- subservient to Him.

Therefore, He commands whoever is seeking protection to seek refuge with the One Who has these attributes from the evil of the whisperer who withdraws.

This (the whisperer) is the devil that is assigned to man. For verily, there is not any of the Children of Adam except that he has a companion that beautifies wicked deeds for him. This devil will go to any lengths to confuse and confound him. The only person who is safe is He Whom Allah protects.

It is confirmed in the Sahih that he (the Prophet) said,

مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا قَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ

There is not a single one of you except that his companion (a devil) has been assigned to him.

They (the Companions) said, "What about you, O Messenger of Allah!''

He replied,


إِلَّا أَنَّ اللهَ أَعَانَنِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَسْلَمَ، فَلَا يَأْمُرُنِي إِلَّا بِخَيْرٍ


However, Allah has helped me against him and he has accepted Islam. Thus, he only commands me to do good.

It is also confirmed in the Two Sahihs from Anas, who reported the story of Safiyyah when she came to visit the Prophet while he was performing Itikaf, that he went out with her during the night to walk her back to her house. So, two men from the Ansar met him (on the way). When they saw the Prophet, they began walking swiftly. So, the Messenger of Allah said,

عَلَى رِسْلِكُمَا، إِنَّهَا صَفِيَّةُ بِنْتُ حُيَيَ

Slow down! This is Safiyyah bint Huyay!

They said, "Glory be to Allah, O Messenger of Allah!''

He said,

إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَجْرِي مِنِ ابْنِ آدَمَ مَجْرَى الدَّم، وَإِنِّي خَشِيتُ أَنْ يَقْذِفَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمَا شَيْئًا، أَوْ قَالَ: شَرًّا

Verily, Shaytan runs in the Son of Adam like the running of the blood. And verily, I feared that he might cast something into your hearts -- or he said -- evil.

Sa`id bin Jubayr reported that Ibn Abbas said concerning Allah's statement,

... الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاس ﴿٤﴾

The whisperer (Al-Waswas) who withdraws.

"The devil who is squatting (perched) upon the heart of the Son of Adam. So when he becomes absentminded and heedless he whispers. Then, when he remembers Allah he withdraws.''

Mujahid and Qatadah also said this.

Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman reported that his father said,

"It has been mentioned to me that Shaytan is Al-Waswas. He blows into the heart of the Son of Adam when he is sad and when he is happy. But when he (man) remembers Allah, Shaytan withdraws.''

Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas;الْوَسْوَاسِ The whisperer.

"He is Shaytan. He whispers and then when he is obeyed, he withdraws.''

هذه ثلاث صفات من صفات الرب عز وجل الربوبية والملك والإلهية فهو رب كل شيء ومليكه وإلهه فجميع الأشياء مخلوقة له مملوكة عبيد له فأمر المستعيذ أن يتعوذ بالمتصف بهذه الصفات من شر الوسواس الخناس وهو الشيطان الموكل بالإنسان فإنه ما من أحد من بني آدم إلا وله قرين يزين له الفواحش ولا يألوه جهدا في الخيال . والمعصوم من عصمه الله وقد ثبت في الصحيح أنه " ما منكم من أحد إلا قد وكل به قرينه " قالوا وأنت يا رسول الله قال " نعم إلا أن الله أعانني عليه فأسلم فلا يأمرني إلا بخير " . وثبت في الصحيحين عن أنس في قصة زيارة صفية للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو معتكف وخروجه معها ليلا ليردها إلى منزلها فلقيه رجلان من الأنصار فلما رأيا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أسرعا فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم " على رسلكما إنها صفية بنت حيي " فقالا سبحان الله يا رسول الله فقال " إن الشيطان يجري من ابن آدم مجرى الدم وإني خشيت أن يقذف في قلوبكما شيئا - أو قال شرا . وقال الحافظ أبو يعلى الموصلي حدثنا محمد بن بحر حدثنا عدي بن أبي عمارة حدثنا زياد النميري عن أنس بن مالك قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم " إن الشيطان واضع خطمه على قلب ابن آدم فإن ذكر الله خنس وإن نسي التقم قلبه فذلك الوسواس الخناس " غريب . وقال الإمام أحمد حدثنا محمد بن جعفر حدثنا شعبة عن عاصم سمعت أبا تميمة يحدث عن رديف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال عثر بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حماره فقلت تعس الشيطان فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم " لا تقل تعس الشيطان فإنك إذا قلت تعس الشيطان تعاظم وقال بقوتي صرعته وإذا قلت بسم الله تصاغر حتى يصير مثل الذباب" تفرد به أحمد إسناده جيد قوي وفيه دلالة على أن القلب متى ذكر الله تصاغر الشيطان وغلب وإن لم يذكر الله تعاظم وغلب . وقال الإمام أحمد حدثنا أبو بكر الحنفي حدثنا الضحاك بن عثمان عن سعيد المقبري عن أبي هريرة قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم " إن أحدكم إن كان في المسجد جاء الشيطان فأبس به كما يأبس الرجل بدابته فإذا سكن له زنقه أو ألجمه" قال أبو هريرة وأنتم ترون ذلك أما المزنوق فتراه مائلا كذا لا يذكر الله وأما الملجم ففاتح فاه لا يذكر الله عز وجل تفرد به أحمد .

" إله الناس " بدلان أو صفتان أو عطفا بيان وأظهر المضاف إليه فيهما زيادة للبيان

إنما قال : " ملك الناس إله الناس " لأن في الناس ملوكا يذكر أنه ملكهم . وفي الناس من يعبد غيره , فذكر أنه إلههم ومعبودهم , وأنه الذي يجب أن يستعاذ به ويلجأ إليه , دون الملوك والعظماء .

I'raab - grammatical analysis of the Qur'an

«إِلهِ» بدل من رب «النَّاسِ» مضاف إليه.